People who drink up to five cups of coffee per day are less likely to die from heart disease, neurological disease, type 2 diabetes, or suicide, a new study suggests.
There is no evidence of harm of regular consumption in terms of chronic disease risk or mortality, and consistent evidence that consumption of coffee reduces the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease,
The researchers had data on participants from the mid-1980s or early 1990s through 2012. During that time, 19,524 women and 12,432 men died.
Those who reported drinking one to five cups of any type of coffee per day were less likely to have died during follow-up than those who did not drink coffee
Death from heart disease, neurological disease, and suicide was less common among moderate coffee drinkers than among others, but there was no relationship with deaths from cancer, the researchers found.
“The benefit in terms of mortality is very small,” and leveled out at four to five cups per day.
For diabetes and cardiovascular disease, caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee seem to have similar effects, so the benefits may be due to compounds in the coffee other than caffeine, he said.
But for neurodegenerative disease, depression, and suicide, most likely the benefits are due to caffeine, he said.
“I don’t think we have data to recommend one type of coffee against other options,” or to recommend an exact amount of coffee, given that taste is very individualized and some people are more sensitive to caffeine, he said.
Here is the study the article above is based on:
Association of Coffee Consumption with Total and Cause-Specific Mortality in Three Large Prospective Cohorts.
BACKGROUND: -The association between consumption of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee and risk of mortality remains inconclusive.
METHODS AND RESULTS: -We examined the associations of consumption of total, caffeinated, and decaffeinated coffee with risk of subsequent total and cause-specific mortality among 74,890 women in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS), 93,054 women in the NHS 2, and 40,557 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study.
Coffee consumption was assessed at baseline using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire.
During 4,690,072 person-years of follow-up, 19,524 women and 12,432 men died.
Consumption of total, caffeinated, and decaffeinated coffee were non-linearly associated with mortality.
Compared to non-drinkers, coffee consumption one to five cups/d was associated with lower risk of mortality, while coffee consumption more than five cups/d was not associated with risk of mortality.
However, when restricting to never smokers, compared to non-drinkers, the HRs of mortality were 0.94 (0.89 to 0.99) for ≤ 1 cup/d, 0.92 (0.87 to 0.97) for 1.1-3 cups/d, 0.85 (0.79 to 0.92) for 3.1-5 cups/d, and 0.88 (0.78 to 0.99) for > 5 cups/d (p for non-linearity = 0.32; p for trend < 0.001). Significant inverse associations were observed for caffeinated (p for trend < 0.001) and decaffeinated coffee (p for trend = 0.022).
Significant inverse associations were observed between coffee consumption and deaths due to cardiovascular disease, neurological diseases, and suicide. No significant association between coffee consumption and total cancer mortality was found
CONCLUSIONS: -Higher consumption of total coffee, caffeinated coffee, and decaffeinated coffee was associated with lower risk of total mortality.
Coffee is a popular topic in PubMed: here are 34 free full text articles on coffee in the last 5 years from 2010 to 2015::
- Caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee and endometrial cancer risk: a prospective cohort study among US postmenopausal women.
- Coffee, caffeine, and risk of completed suicide: results from three prospective cohorts of American adults..
- Association of coffee drinking with total and cause-specific mortality.
- Coffee consumption and mortality in women with cardiovascular disease.
- The Relationship between caffeine and coffee consumption and exfoliation glaucoma or glaucoma suspect: a prospective study in two cohorts.
- Caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee and tea intakes and risk of colorectal cancer in a large prospective study.
- Coffee consumption and risk of chronic disease in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Germany study.
- Coffee and tea consumption are inversely associated with mortality in a multiethnic urban population.
- Caffeinated and caffeine-free beverages and risk of type 2 diabetes.
- A prospective cohort study of coffee consumption and risk of endometrial cancer over a 26-year follow-up.
- Coffee and tea consumption and risk of pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort study.
- Coffee consumption and prostate cancer risk and progression in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study.
- Caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and a dose-response meta-analysis.
- Coffee, tea, caffeine intake, and risk of adult glioma in three prospective cohort studies.
- The effects of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee on sex hormone-binding globulin and endogenous sex hormone levels: a randomized controlled trial.
- Changes in coffee intake and subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes: three large cohorts of US men and women.
- Effects of 16-week consumption of caffeinated and decaffeinated instant coffee on glucose metabolism in a randomized controlled trial.
- Coffee, tea, and fatal oral/pharyngeal cancer in a large prospective US cohort.
- Coffee and caffeine consumption in relation to sex hormone-binding globulin and risk of type 2 diabetes in postmenopausal women.
- Coffee, caffeine, and risk of depression among women.
- Coffee consumption and risk of incident gout in women: the Nurses’ Health Study.
- Tea and coffee consumption and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
- Coffee consumption and mortality due to all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer in Japanese women.
- Association of coffee consumption with all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality.
- Differential effects of coffee on the risk of type 2 diabetes according to meal consumption in a French cohort of women: the E3N/EPIC cohort study.
- Association of nut consumption with total and cause-specific mortality.
- Coffee, tea, and alcohol intake in relation to risk of type 2 diabetes in African American women.
- Coffee intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: the Multiethnic Cohort.
- Effects of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee on biological risk factors for type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial.
- Coffee and black tea consumption and breast cancer mortality in a cohort of Swedish women.
- Espresso coffee consumption and risk of coronary heart disease in a large Italian cohort.
- Evaluation of various biomarkers as potential mediators of the association between coffee consumption and incident type 2 diabetes in the EPIC-Potsdam Study.
- Coffee consumption and risk of endometrial cancer: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.
- Soda consumption and the risk of stroke in men and women.
- Prospective evaluation of the association of nut/peanut consumption with total and cause-specific mortality.