Diterpenoids are found in certain plants, fungi, and marine organisms, and two in particular – carnosol (CS) and carnosic acid (CA) – are known to interfere with multiple pathways in the human body associated with inflammation and pain.
The researchers found that the diterpenoids inhibited two enzymes involved in inflammation, fever, and pain.
- Overexpression of one of these enzymes has been observed in several inflammatory disorders as well as in many human tumors;
- the second enzyme is also a major player in inflammation and other immune-related processes in the body.
“We have demonstrated that 5-LO and mPGES-1, two key enzymes of inflammation, are primary targets of CS and CA, which are major bioactive ingredients of herbs that are used as spices – namely sage and rosemary – and in traditional medicine,” said Dr Bifulco
“The discovery of new dual 5-LO/mPGES-1 inhibitors, like CS and CA, represents a valid strategy for the treatment of inflammatory and cancer diseases and further justifies the use of sage and rosemary in traditional medicine,” said Dr Koeberle.
Article: In vivo and in vitro biological evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic response of carnosol and carnosic acid and in silico analysis of their target interactions, Francesco Maione, Vincenza Cantone, Simona Pace, Maria Giovanna Chini, Angela Bisio, Giovanni Romussi, Stefano Pieretti, Oliver Werz, Andreas Koeberle, Nicola Mascolo, and Giuseppe Bifulco, British Journal of Pharmacology, doi: 10.1111/bph.13545, published online 28 July 2016.