Too Many Positive Results in Trials of Mindfulness

Reporting of Positive Results in Randomized Controlled Trials of Mindfulness-Based Mental Health Interventions – PlosOne – April 8, 2016 – Free full-text study

A large proportion of mindfulness-based therapy trials report statistically significant results, even in the context of very low statistical power.

We have the same problem with the studies used to support the CDC guidelines.

The objective of the present study was to characterize the reporting of “positive” results in randomized controlled trials of mindfulness-based therapy.  

We also assessed mindfulness-based therapy trial registrations for indications of possible reporting bias and reviewed recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses to determine whether reporting biases were identified.


CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL, EMBASE, ISI, MEDLINE, PsycInfo, and SCOPUS databases were searched for randomized controlled trials of mindfulness-based therapy. The number of positive trials was described and compared to the number that might be expected if mindfulness-based therapy were similarly effective compared to individual therapy for depression. Trial registries were searched for mindfulness-based therapy registrations. CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL, EMBASE, ISI, MEDLINE, PsycInfo, and SCOPUS were also searched for mindfulness-based therapy systematic reviews and meta-analyses.


  • 108 (87%) of 124 published trials reported ≥1 positive outcome in the abstract, and 109 (88%) concluded that mindfulness-based therapy was effective, 1.6 times greater than the expected number of positive trials based on effect size d = 0.55 (expected number positive trials = 65.7).
  • Of 21 trial registrations, 13 (62%) remained unpublished 30 months post-trial completion.
  • No trial registrations adequately specified a single primary outcome measure with time of assessment.
  • None of 36 systematic reviews and meta-analyses concluded that effect estimates were overestimated due to reporting biases.

In other words, these studies did not follow the scientific standards established for such research.


The proportion of mindfulness-based therapy trials with statistically significant results may overstate what would occur in practice.


The main finding of this study was that of 124 MBT RCTs that were reviewed, almost 90% were presented as positive studies when published.

Furthermore, there were only 3 trials that were presented unequivocally as negative trials without alternative interpretations or caveats to mitigate the negative results and suggest that the treatment might still be an effective treatment

The above is a sure sign of researcher bias, which runs rampant in “science” these days.

This is just like all the studies of opioids make them seem detrimental because they do not account for the positive pain-relieving effects at all.

MBT is often administered in groups by people who do not necessarily have professional mental health training to treatment recipients without defined diagnoses or levels of symptoms, all of which likely reduce effect sizes

Based on this reference point, there were 1.6 times as many positive MBT RCTs among the 124 RCTs we reviewed as would be expected if the true effect size of d = 0.55 in a relatively homogeneous group of trials.

When we examined subgroups of only studies of MBCT (versus other MBTs), only studies with clinical populations (versus general population, employees, or students), and only studies that required mental health symptoms for enrollment, results were consistent.

Our review of trial registration records also suggest the possibility that reporting biases may have been an important factor.

Of the 124 RCTs reviewed, only 21 (17%) were registered prior to data collection, even though 80 of the eligible RCTs were published recently (since 2010).

This means they collected data first, then examined it for possible correlations, and only then they decided which results they would use for the study.

Statistically, data can be “processed” in various hypothetical conditions with various combinations of data point to eventually yield the sought-after result.

When we examined trial registries, we identified 21 registrations of MBT trials listed as completed by 2010 and found that 13 (62%) remained unpublished 30 months after completion; of the published trials, all conveyed a positive conclusion.

Another technique is to simply abandon studies if the results don’t support the researchers’ hypotheses. Unfortunately, this is happening in many areas of scientific inquiry and is an acknowledged problem among scientists.

None of the 21 registrations, however, adequately specified a single primary outcome (or multiple primary outcomes with an appropriate plan for statistical adjustment) and specified the outcome measure, the time of assessment, and the metric (e.g., continuous, dichotomous).

In other words, most of these studies supporting “mindfulness” aren’t scientifically rigorous and only produce questionable results that don’t hold up under inspection – much like the current rash of negative opioid studies.

Yet these bogus studies are then widely cited to support the current propaganda and even become incorporated into government health guidelines like the CDC’s, which urge us to pursue exactly this kind of unscientific mumbo-jumbo.

When we removed the metric requirement, only 2 (10%) registrations were classified as adequate.

Thus, it may be the case that selective outcome reporting, as well as “data dredging” and selective reporting of analyses may play important roles in the proportion of positive studies that we found among MBT RCTs in the present study

If one assumes that there is some effect of MBT on mental health outcomes, albeit a smaller effect than reported in published studies, the ability to selectively publish from multiple outcome options or multiple analyses could easily lead to exaggerated effect estimates and a rate of positive trial reports that exceeds plausibility, as we found in our study.

Indeed, others have suggested that exaggerated effect sizes are problematic in trials that work with “soft” outcomes, as is typically the case in psychological or behavioral research, and that selective reporting of only some outcomes and analytical flexibility may be even larger problems than classic publication bias in psychological studies compared to “harder” sciences

The very small number of trials that clearly declared negative results in the present study without caveats or “spin” also reminds us that when negative results are reported, they are often “spun” so that they appear to be equivocal or even positive findings.

…the failure to provide a clear statement of non-significance in the abstract may serve to distort understandings of results, since many readers base their assessment of trial results on what is reported in the abstract.

In the present study, we found that most existing evidence syntheses either did not evaluate reporting biases or concluded that they were not present.

A meta-analysis, which was published subsequent to our search period and not included in our analysis, for instance, did not assess publication or other forms of reporting bias with statistical methods, but did identify patterns of non-publication and likely selective outcome reporting by reviewing MBT trial registrations.

However, the proportion of positive trials that are reported, despite small sample sizes and low statistical power are concerning.

These are exactly like the opioid studies on which the CDC based their prescribing guidelines. As they say “garbage in, garbage out”.

Although we could not determine with certainty the degree that reporting biases play a definitive role in this, there was evidence that this may be driving force.

Investigators who conduct trials of MBT and other non-pharmaceutical interventions to improve mental health should register their trials with enough information so that readers can verify whether published outcomes match the pre-specified outcomes.

6 thoughts on “Too Many Positive Results in Trials of Mindfulness

  1. leejcaroll

    I like your analogy with the opiod studies and the bias.
    I also have to wonder about investigating something like mindfulness since it is all ethereal inb a sense that it is all self reporting no way if how person actually doing it etc. (The up side is it probably cant hurt to do it)


  2. Scott michaels

    Another fake study to add on toall the other fake studies. Piling on!
    Problem is the drs are ignorant and believe.
    You cant will yourpain to go away unless your faking it. Its like shooting your foot and telling your brain the pain isnt real.


  3. Kathy C

    It is scary how they peddled this nonsense, following this Topic, puts the entire Industry, along with other False Narratives in perspective. They way that this was introduced to the Mainstream was particularly deceptive. They have plenty of excuses for the people that this did not help. That includes people with Chronic Pain, or other Health Issues.
    I started by asking how this was embraced as fact, by the general Public and Practitioners. Practitioners have to believe in it, their livelihoods depend on it. Mindfulness is so popular, becasue it sounds good. It also replaces Prayer for the secular, a much cheaper and easier replacement for healthcare, thoughtful consideration of Science or facts, and allows short cuts and Pseudo Science to replace facts and observations.
    Once one believes in Mindfulness, the door is open to blaming people for gettign sick due to their “Lifestyle” and distorting the Facts to fit reality. The way the Popular Media covered this as if it was Scientific or accurate in any way is beyond shocking. An Article in Time Magazine, states “Meditation Reduces Emotional Pain by 44%: Study.” The Title suggest they have hard Data, 44% is a nice hard number. A critical reader would ask, How do you measure “Emotional Pain? Any reduction in Emotional Pain or distress, sounds like a good thing. However if one were to actually read the Article, “Emotional Pain” becomes replaced with Physical Pain. They go on to make this spurious unfounded claim,. “According to a new study, mindfulness meditation exhibited even stronger physical pain reductions than morphine, says the study’s lead investigator.”
    The “Study” was done on healthy Pain Free, subjects, who were exposed to a 120 degree probe. Most people would tend to either believe that this Article was factual, after all it was in a Major credible Magazine. A certain percentage of readers, want to believe in Magic, easy cures, and that drugs are bad or unnecessary. Part of this goes back to belief, and self preservation. No one who lives with Chronic Pain every really imagined it could happen to them. It is much easier to believe it is due to a character flaw, or Lifestyle choice, which is another popular narrative. Mindfulness, was weaponized and peddled as an Alternative Cure. It gives people who believe they are decent moral beings, a free pass to ignore Pain and Suffering in others.
    These “Studies” always leave out key facts, and are done deceptively, virtually every claim is unsubstantiated and equated with Science. Science focuses on measurable things, no one can measure Emotional Pain. It is entirely subjective. This “Study” used Health Pain Free subjects for a reason. They selected for a group with little or no “Emotional Pain. This is a Theme across the so called “Research.” The Article then deliberately conflate “Emotional Pain,” with Physical Pain, and make a ridiculous titillating Statement about Morphine. The Hook, after the Title the comment from a Lead Investigator, is meant to not only misinform, but get our attention. Most people, like most test subjects would not need Morphine for the discomfort associated with a 120 degree probe. No Morphine was used in this “Study” nor were any Double Blind Experiments done with or with out Morphine or any other substance. Yet right there in the Subtitle they tell us that Mindfulness is a replacement for Morphine.
    Most readers are incapable of reading between the lines. No Scientist or Experts spoke up about this meaningless and deceptive Article, or the many others that we are exposed to every day. How many other False Narratives are being reiterated daily by our Media? These kinds of popular “Studies” are in our “News” daily. When we ask who benefits from this deliberate deception, we can looks at some Industries. Healthcare Profits depend on this obfuscation. The Industry pays for this “Research” and silence from the Academic Community is assured. They depend on these Industries for their funding. With a Science Illiterate population, that only follows what reinforces their beliefs, doubt is replaced with knowing. We have a mindless, ignorant population, peddling “Mindfulness.”

    Liked by 1 person

  4. stevelaniermailcom

    Not for nothing but this MBT stuff is COMPLETE UNDILUTED BULLS#IT!
    And this is coming from a guy that strongly believes in the potential of Hypnosis because I nearly got expelled in high school because I did a Science Fair project and actually hypnotized my friends, stuck them with needles and they felt nothing! PAIN would make it nearly impossible to get people to relax so they could achieve the state of mind required for hypnosis!



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