- This scoping review reveals a growing literature on the effects of certain state opioid misuse prevention policies, but persistent gaps in evidence on other prevalent state policies remain.
- [I had to skip the 2nd “policy point” because it was so absurd, again urging restrictions on prescribed opioids, which are NOT the problem]
- Further research should concentrate on potential unintended consequences of opioid misuse prevention policies, differential policy effects across populations, interventions that have not received sufficient evaluation (eg, Good Samaritan laws, naloxone access laws), and patient-related outcomes.
We searched six online databases to identify evaluations of state opioid policies. Eligible studies examined legislative and administrative policy interventions that evaluated
(a) prescribing and dispensing,
(b) patient behavior, or
(c) patient health.
Seventy-one articles met our inclusion criteria, including 41 studies published between 2016 and 2018.
These articles evaluated nine types of state policies targeting opioid misuse.
While prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) have received considerable attention in the literature, far fewer studies addressed other types of state policy.
Overall, evidence quality is very low for the majority of policies due to a small number of evaluations.
RIght in the guideline itself, the CDC claimed it would collect data on the outcomes of this ridiculous guideline, yet they simply did not. They have deliberately avoided collecting any data on the damage done to patients.
The outcomes for patients force-tapered as a misapplication of the guideline have simply been ignored.
Of interventions that have been the subject of considerable research, promising means of reducing the volume and dosages of opioids prescribed and dispensed include drug supply management policies and robust PDMPs.
Due to low study number and quality, evidence is insufficient to draw conclusions regarding interventions targeting patient behavior and health outcomes, including naloxone access laws and Good Samaritan laws.
Recent research has improved the evidence base on several state interventions targeting opioid misuse.
Specifically, moderate evidence suggests that drug supply management policies and robust PDMPs reduce opioid prescribing.
But prescribing isn’t the problem; the problem is addiction and overdose caused by multiple drugs (polypharmacy), especially illicit fentanyl being mixed into all kinds of other drugs.
By looking only at this “surrogate endpoint” they are missing the critical aspect of the problem: illicit opioid abuse, not legitimate opioid use.
Despite the increase in rigorous evaluations, evidence remains limited for the majority of policies, particularly those targeting patient health–related outcomes.