Medical Marijuana: State of the Science – Sources

190 sources listed for article on, Feb. 6, 2015:

Medical Marijuana: The State of the Science

  1. 23 legal medical marijuana states and DC. Updated November 30, 2014. Accessed November 2, 2014.
  2. Rubens M. Political and medical views on medical marijuana and its future. Soc Work Public Health. 2014;29:121-131. Abstract
  3. Kondrad E, Reid A. Colorado family physicians’ attitudes toward medical marijuana. J Am Board Fam Med. 2013:26:52-60. Abstract
  4. Mehmedic Z, Chandra S, Slade D, et al. Potency trends of ?9-THC and other cannabinoids in confiscated cannabis preparations from 1993 to 2008. J Forensic Sci. 2010;55:1209-1217. Abstract
  5. Ashton H. Pharmacology and effects of cannabis: a brief review. Br J Psychiatry. 2001;178:101-106. Abstract
  6. Gaoni Y, Mechoulam R. Isolation, structure and partial synthesis of an active constituent of hashish. J Am Chem Soc. 1964;86:1646-1647.
  7. Burns TL, Ineck JR. Cannabinoid analgesia as a potential new therapeutic option in the treatment of persistent pain. Ann Pharmacother. 2006;40:251-260. Abstract
  8. Lynch ME, Campbell F. Cannabinoids for treatment of chronic non-cancer pain: a systematic review of randomized trials. Br J Clin Pharm. 2011;72:735-744.
  9. WebMD. Marinol. Side effects. Accessed November 2, 2014.
  10. Issa MA, Narang S, Jamison RN, et al. The subjective psychoactive effects of oral dronabinol studied in a randomized, controlled crossover clinical trial for pain. Clin J Pain. 2014;30:472-478. Abstract
  11. Wesnes KA, Annas P, Edgar C, et al. Nabilone produces marked impairments to cognitive function and changes in subjective state in healthy volunteers. J Psychopharmacol. 2010;24:1659-1669. Abstract
  12. Russo EB. The solution to the medical cannabis problem. In: Schatman ME, ed. Ethical Issues in Chronic Pain Management. New York: Informa Healthcare; 2007:165-194.
  13. Campos AC, Moreira FA, Gomes FV, Del Bel EA, Guimarães FS. Multiple mechanisms involved in the large-spectrum therapeutic potential of cannabidiol in psychiatric disorders. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2012;367:3364-3378. Abstract
  14. Robson P. Therapeutic aspects of cannabis and cannabinoids. Br J Psychiatry. 2001;178:107-115. Abstract
  15. Mechoulam R, Gaoni Y. The absolute configuration of delta-1tetrahydrocannabinol, the major active constituent of hashish. Tetrahedron Lett. 1967;12:1109-1111. Abstract
  16. Zuardi AW. Cannabidiol: from an inactive cannabinoid to a drug with wide spectrum of action. Rev Bras Psiquiatr. 2008;30:271-280. Abstract
  17. Iversen L. The Science of Marijuana. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2008.
  18. Wilkinson ST, D’Souza DC. Problems with the medicalization of marijuana. JAMA. 2014;311:2377-2378. Abstract
  19. Burgdorf JR, Kilmer B, Pacula RL. Heterogeneity in the composition of marijuana seized in California. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2011;117:59-61. Abstract
  20. Henry JA, Oldfield WL, Kon OM. Comparing cannabis with tobacco. BMJ. 2003;326:942-943. Abstract
  21. Koppel BS, Brust JC, Fife T, et al. Systematic review: efficacy and safety of medical marijuana in selected neurologic disorders: report of the Guideline Development Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 2014;82:1556-1563. Abstract
  22. Volkow ND, Baler ND, Compton WM, Weiss SR. Adverse health effects of marijuana use. N Engl J Med. 2014;370:2219-2227. Abstract
  23. Fitzcharles MA, Clauw DJ, Ste-Marie PA, Shir Y. The dilemma of medical marijuana use by rheumatology patients. Arthritis Care Res. 2014;66:797-801.
  24. Aggarwal SK, Pangarkar S, Carter GT, Tribuzio B, Miedema M, Kennedy DJ. Medical marijuana for failed back surgical syndrome: a viable option for pain control or an uncontrolled narcotic? PM R. 2014;6:363-372.
  25. Vermont Herbal Center. Weed menu. Accessed November 5, 2014.
  26. Thomas G, Kloner RA, Rezkalla S. Adverse cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular effects of marijuana inhalation: what cardiologists need to know. Am J Cardiol. 2014;113:187-190. Abstract
  27. Matochik JA, Eldreth DA, Cadet JL, Bolla KI. Altered brain tissue composition in heavy marijuana users. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2005;77:23-30. Abstract
  28. Yucel M, Zalesky A, Takagi MJ, et al. White-matter abnormalities in adolescents with long-term inhalant and cannabis use: a diffusion magnetic resonance imaging study. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2010;35:409-412. Abstract
  29. Demirakca T, Sartorius A, Ende G, et al. Diminished gray matter in the hippocampus of cannabis users: possible protective effects of cannabidiol. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2011;114:242-245. Abstract
  30. Hezode C, Roudot-Thoraval F, Nguyen S, et al. Daily cannabis smoking as a risk factor for progression of fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology. 2005;42:63-71. Abstract
  31. Chen J, McCarron RM. Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome: a result of chronic, heavy cannabis use. Current Psychiatry. 2013;12:48-54.
  32. Mayoral M, Calderón H, Cano R, Lombardero M. Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis caused by Cannabis sativa pollen. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2008;18:73-74. Abstract
  33. Bari M, Battista N, Pirazzi V, Maccarrone M. The manifold actions of endocannabinoids on female and male reproductive events. Front Biosci. 2011;16:498-516.
  34. Barazani Y, Katz BF, Nagler HM, Stember DS. Lifestyle, environment, and male reproductive health. Urol Clin North Am. 2014;41:55-66. Abstract
  35. Wu CS, Jew CP, Lu HC. Lasting impacts of prenatal cannabis exposure and the role of endogenous cannabinoids in the developing brain. Future Neurol. 2011;6:459-480.
  36. Karila L, Cazas O, Danel T, Reynaud M. [Short- and long-term consequences of prenatal exposure to cannabis]. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris). 2006;35:62-70. Abstract
  37. Gray TR, Eiden RD, Leonard KE, et al. Identifying prenatal cannabis exposure and effects of concurrent tobacco exposure on neonatal growth. Clin Chem. 2010;56:1442-1450. Abstract
  38. Rawal SY, Tatakis DN, Tipton DA. Periodontal and oral manifestations of marijuana use. J Tenn Dent Assoc. 2012;92:26-31. Abstract
  39. Calabria B, Degenhardt L, Hall W, Lynskey M. Does cannabis use increase the risk of death? Systematic review of epidemiological evidence on adverse effects of cannabis use. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2010;29:318-330. Abstract
  40. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders—Fifth Edition (DSM-5). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013.
  41. Levin KH, Copersino ML, Heishman SJ, et al. Cannabis withdrawal symptoms in non-treatment-seeking adult cannabis smokers. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2010;111:120-127. Abstract
  42. Milin R, Manion I, Dare G, Walker S. Prospective assessment of cannabis withdrawal in adolescents with cannabis dependence: a pilot study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2008;47:174-178. Abstract
  43. Copersino ML, Boyd SJ, Tashkin DP, et al. Cannabis withdrawal among non-treatment-seeking adult cannabis users. Am J Addict. 2006;15:8-14. Abstract
  44. Mennes CE, Ben Abdallah A, Cottler LB. The reliability of self-reported cannabis abuse, dependence and withdrawal symptoms: multisite study of differences between general population and treatment groups. Addict Behav. 2009;34:223-226. Abstract
  45. Moran C. Depersonalization and agoraphobia associated with marijuana use. Br J Med Psychol. 1986;59(Pt 2):187-196. Abstract
  46. Karila L, Roux P, Rolland B, et al. Acute and long-term effects of cannabis use: a review. Curr Pharm Des. 2014;20:4112-4118. Abstract
  47. Nussbaum AM, Thurstone C, McGarry L, Walker B, Sabel AL. Use and diversion of medical marijuana among adults admitted to inpatient psychiatry. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2014 Nov 6. [Epub ahead of print]
  48. Allentuck S. Medical aspects: symptoms and behaviors. In: Mayor’s Committee on Marihuana, ed. The Marihuana Problem in the City of New York. Lancaster, Penn: Jacques Cattell Press; 1944:35-51.
  49. Niesink RJ, van Laar MW. Does cannabidiol protect against adverse psychological effects of THC? Front Psychiatry. 2013;4:130.
  50. Moreira FA, Wotjak CT. Cannabinoids and anxiety. Curr Top Behav Neurosci. 2010;2:429-450.
  51. Crippa JA, Zuardi AW, Martin-Santos R, et al. Cannabis and anxiety: a critical review of the evidence. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2009;24:515-523. Abstract
  52. Reece AS. Chronic toxicology of cannabis. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2009;47:517-524. Abstract
  53. Price C, Hemmingsson T, Lewis G, Zammit S, Allebeck P. Cannabis and suicide: longitudinal study. Br J Psychiatry. 2009;195:492-497. Abstract
  54. Serafini G, Pompili M, Innamorati M, Rihmer Z, Sher L, Girardi P. Can cannabis increase the suicide risk in psychosis? A critical review. Curr Pharm Des. 2012;18:5165-5187. Abstract
  55. Patton GC, Coffey C, Carlin JB, Degenhardt L, Lynskey M, Hall W. Cannabis use and mental health in young people: cohort study. BMJ. 2002;325:1195-1198. Abstract
  56. Hadland SE, Harris SK. Youth marijuana use: state of the science for the practicing clinician. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2014;26:420-427. Abstract
  57. Agrawal A, Lynskey MT. Cannabis controversies: how genetics can inform the study of comorbidity. Addiction. 2014;109:360-370. Abstract
  58. Bally N, Zullino D, Aubry JM. Cannabis use and first manic episode. J Affect Disord. 2014;165:103-108. Abstract
  59. Radhakrishnan R, Wilkinson ST, D’Souza DC. Gone to pot—a review of the association between cannabis and psychosis. Front Psychiatry. 2014;5:54.
  60. van Os J, Bak M, Hanssen M, Bijl RV, de Graaf R, Verdoux H. Cannabis use and psychosis: a longitudinal population-based study. Am J Epidemiol. 2002;156:319-327. Abstract
  61. Ferdinand RF, Sondeijker F, Van Der Ende J, Selten JP, Huizink A, Verhulst FC. Cannabis use predicts future psychotic symptoms, and vice versa. Addiction. 2005;100:612-618. Abstract
  62. McGrath J, Welham J, Scott J, et al. Association between cannabis use and psychosis-related outcomes using sibling pair analysis in a cohort of young adults. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010;67:440-447. Abstract
  63. Kuepper R, Van Os J, Lieb R, Wittchen HU, Höfler M, Henquet C. Continued cannabis use and risk of incidence and persistence of psychotic symptoms: 10 year follow-up cohort study. BMJ. 2011;342:d738.
  64. Radhakrishnan R, Addy PH, Sewell RA, et al. Cannabis, cannabinoids and the link with psychosis. In: Madras B, Kuhar M, eds. The Effects of Drug Abuse on the Human Nervous System. San Diego, Calif: Academic Press (Elsevier); 2014:423-474.
  65. Arseneault L, Cannon M, Poulton R, Murray R, Caspi A, Moffitt TE. Cannabis use in adolescence and risk for adult psychosis: longitudinal prospective study. BMJ. 2002;325:1212-1213. Abstract
  66. Konings M, Stefanis N, Kuepper R, et al. Replication in two independent population-based samples that childhood maltreatment and cannabis use synergistically impact on psychosis risk. Psychol Med. 2012;42:149-159. Abstract
  67. McGuire P, Jones P, Harvey I, Williams M, McGuffin P, Murray RM. Morbid risk of schizophrenia for relatives of patients with cannabis-associated psychosis. Schizophr Res. 1995;15:277-281. Abstract
  68. Henquet C, Rosa A, Delespaul P, et al. COMT ValMet moderation of cannabis-induced psychosis: a momentary assessment study of ‘switching on’ hallucinations in the flow of daily life. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2009;119:156-160. Abstract
  69. Di Forti M, Iyegbe C, Sallis H, et al. Confirmation that the AKT1 (rs2494732) genotype influences the risk of psychosis in cannabis users. Biol Psychiatry. 2012;72:811-816. Abstract
  70. Bhattacharyya S, Atakan Z, Martin-Santos R, et al. Preliminary report of biological basis of sensitivity to the effects of cannabis on psychosis: AKT1 and DAT1 genotype modulates the effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on midbrain and striatal function. Mol Psychiatry. 2012;17:1152-1155. Abstract
  71. Crean RD, Crane NA, Mason BJ. An evidence based review of acute and long-term effects of cannabis use on executive cognitive functions. J Addict Med. 2011;5:1-8. Abstract
  72. Bossong MG, Jager G, Bhattacharyya S, Allen P. Acute and non-acute effects of cannabis on human memory function: a critical review of neuroimaging studies. Curr Pharm Des. 2014;20:2114-2125. Abstract
  73. Meier MH, Caspi A, Ambler A, et al. Persistent cannabis users show neuropsychological decline from childhood to midlife. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:E2657-E2664. Abstract
  74. Solowij N, Yucel M, Lorenzetti V, Lubman D. Does cannabis cause lasting brain damage? In: Castle D, Murray RM, D’Souza DC, eds. Marijuana and Madness. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press; 2012:103-113.
  75. Small E, Cronquist A. A practical and natural taxonomy for cannabis. Taxon. 1976;25:405-435.
  76. California Department of Public Health. Proposition 215. Accessed November 14, 2014.
  77. Arizona Department of Health Services. Application monthly report—Arizona Medical Marijuana Program. April 14-October 27, 2011. Accessed November 16, 2014.
  78. Aggarwal SK. Cannabinergic pain medicine: a concise clinical primer and survey of randomized-controlled trial results. Clin J Pain. 2013;29:162-171. Abstract
  79. Blake DR, Robson P, Ho M, Jubb RW, McCabe CS. Preliminary assessment of the efficacy, tolerability and safety of a cannabis-based medicine (Sativex) in the treatment of pain caused by rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2006;45:50-52. Abstract
  80. Collin C, Davies P, Mutiboko IK, Ratcliffe S; Sativex Spasticity in MS Study Group. Randomized controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis. Eur J Neurol. 2007;14:290-296. Abstract
  81. Johnson JR, Burnell-Nugent M, Lossignol D, Ganae-Motan ED, Potts R, Fallon MT. Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of THC:CBD extract and THC extract in patients with intractable cancer-related pain. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2010;39:167-179. Abstract
  82. Aragona M, Onesti E, Tomassini V, et al. Psychopathological and cognitive effects of therapeutic cannabinoids in multiple sclerosis: a double-blind, placebo controlled, crossover study. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2009;32:41-47. Abstract
  83. Borgelt LM, Franson KL, Nussbaum AM, Wang GS. The pharmacologic and clinical effects of medical cannabis. Pharmacotherapy. 2013;33:195-209. Abstract
  84. Campbell FA, Tramèr MR, Carroll D, Reynolds DJ, Moore RA, McQuay HJ. Are cannabinoids an effective and safe treatment option in the management of pain? A qualitative systematic review. BMJ. 2001;323:13-16. Abstract
  85. Tramèr MR, Carroll D, Campbell FA, Reynolds DJ, Moore RA, McQuay HJ. Cannabinoids for control of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting: quantitative systematic review. BMJ. 2001;323:16-21. Abstract
  86. Machado Rocha FC, Stéfano SC, De Cássia Haiek R, Rosa Oliveira LM, Da Silveira DX. Therapeutic use of Cannabis sativa on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting among cancer patients: systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl). 2008;17:431-443. Abstract
  87. Pittler MH, Ernst E. Complementary therapies for neuropathic and neuralgic pain: systematic review. Clin J Pain. 2008;24:731-733. Abstract
  88. Martín-Sánchez E, Furukawa TA, Taylor J, Martin JL. Systematic review and meta-analysis of cannabis treatment for chronic pain. Pain Med. 2009;10:1353-1368. Abstract
  89. Lakhan SE, Rowland M. Whole plant cannabis extracts in the treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review. BMC Neurol. 2009;9:59.
  90. Phillips TJ, Cherry CL, Cox S, Marshall SJ, Rice AS. Pharmacological treatment of painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. PLoS One. 2010;28;5:e14433.
  91. Gates PJ, Albertella L, Copeland J. The effects of cannabinoid administration on sleep: a systematic review of human studies. Sleep Med Rev. 2014;18:477-487. Abstract
  92. Sznitman SR, Zolotov Y. Cannabis for therapeutic purposes and public health and safety: a systematic and critical review. Int J Drug Policy. 2015;26:20-29. Abstract
  93. Khey DN, Stogner J, Miller BL. Emerging drugs, today versus yesteryear. Emerging Trends in Drug Use and Distribution. SpringerBriefs in Criminology. 2014;12:13-32.
  94. Smith N. High potency cannabis: the forgotten variable. Addiction. 2005;100:1558-1560.
  95. Mechoulam R, Carlini EA. Toward drugs derived from cannabis. Naturwissenschaften. 1978;65:174-179. Abstract
  96. Cunha JM, Carlini EA, Pereira AE, et al. Chronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients. Pharmacology. 1980;21:175-185. Abstract
  97. Consroe P, Laguna J, Allender J, et al. Controlled clinical trial of cannabidiol in Huntington’s disease. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1991;40:701-708. Abstract
  98. Zuardi AW, Hallak JE, Dursun SM, et al. Cannabidiol monotherapy for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. J Psychopharmacol. 2006;20:683-686. Abstract
  99. Zuardi AW, Crippa J, Dursun S, et al. Cannabidiol was ineffective for manic episode of bipolar affective disorder. J Psychopharmacol. 2010;24:135-137. Abstract
  100. Mincis M, Pfeferman A, Guimaraes RX, et al. [Chronic administration of cannabidiol in man. Pilot study]. AMB Rev Assoc Med Bras. 1973;19:185-190. Abstract
  101. Zuardi A W, Crippa J, Hallak J, et al. Cannabidiol for the treatment of psychosis in Parkinson’s disease. J Psychopharmacol. 2009;23:979-983. Abstract
  102. Zuardi AW, Guimarães FS. Cannabidiol as an anxiolytic and antipsychotic. In: Mathre ML, ed. Cannabis in Medical Practice. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc.; 1997:133-141.
  103. Zhornitsky S, Potvin S. Cannabidiol in humans—the quest for therapeutic targets. Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2012;5:529-552.
  104. Bergamaschi MM, Queiroz RH, Zuardi AW, Crippa JA. Safety and side effects of cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent. Curr Drug Saf. 2011;6:237-249. Abstract
  105. Zuardi AW, Guimaraes FS, Moreira AC. Effect of cannabidiol on plasma prolactin, growth hormone and cortisol in human volunteers. Brazilian J Med Biol Res. 1993;26:213-217.
  106. Karniol IG, Shirakawa I, Kasinski N, Pfeferman A, Carlini EA. Cannabidiol interferes with the effects of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in man. Eur J Pharmacol. 1974;28:172-177. Abstract
  107. Hermann D, Schneider M. Potential protective effects of cannabidiol on neuroanatomical alterations in cannabis users and psychosis: a critical review. Curr Pharm Des. 2012;18:4897-4905. Abstract
  108. Rottanburg D, Robins AH, Ben-Arie O, Teggin A, Elk R. Cannabis-associated psychosis with hypomanic features. Lancet. 1982;2:1364-1366. Abstract
  109. Morgan CJ, Curran HV. Effects of cannabidiol on schizophrenia-like symptoms in people who use cannabis. Br J Psychiatry. 2008;192:306-307. Abstract
  110. Morgan CJ, Schafer G, Freeman TP, Curran HV. Impact of cannabidiol on the acute memory and psychotomimetic effects of smoked cannabis: naturalistic study [corrected]. Br J Psychiatry. 2010;197:285-290. Abstract
  111. Bhattacharyya S, Morrison PD, Fusar-Poli P, et al. Opposite effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on human brain function and psychopathology. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2010;35:764-774. Abstract
  112. Schubart CD, Sommer IE, van Gastel WA, Goetgebuer RL, Kahn RS, Boks MP. Cannabis with high cannabidiol content is associated with fewer psychotic experiences. Schizophr Res. 2011;130:216-221. Abstract
  113. Zuardi AW, Shirakawa I, Finkelfarb E, Karniol IG. Action of cannabidiol on the anxiety and other effects produced by delta 9-THC in normal subjects. Psychopharmacology. 1982;76:245-250. Abstract
  114. Dalton WS, Martz R, Lemberger L, Rodda BE, Forney RB. Influence of cannabidiol on delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol effects. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1976;19:300-309. Abstract
  115. Crippa JA, Hallak JE, Machado-de-Sousa JP, et al. Cannabidiol for the treatment of cannabis withdrawal syndrome: a case report. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2013;38:162-164. Abstract
  116. Trembly B, Sherman M. Double-blind clinical study of cannabidiol as a secondary anticonvulsant. In: Program and abstracts of Marijuana ’90 International Conference on Cannabis and Cannabinoids; July 8-11, 1990; Kolympari, Crete. Page 5.
  117. Gloss D, Vickrey B. Cannabinoids for epilepsy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;3:CD009270.
  118. Cilio MR, Thiele EA, Devinsky O. The case for assessing cannabidiol in epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2014;55:787-790. Abstract
  119. Devinsky O, Cilio MR, Cross H, et al. Cannabidiol: pharmacology and potential therapeutic role in epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Epilepsia. 2014;55:791-802. Abstract
  120. Radke J. GW Pharmaceuticals provides update on their cannabidiol product to treat Dravet syndrome. RDR Rare Disease Report. October 15, 2014. Accessed December 21, 2014.
  121. Davies M. Could cannabis be used to treat epilepsy? Boy, 12, is one of the first patients to trial radical new treatment. December 14, 2014. Accessed December 21, 2014.
  122. Chagas MH, Eckeli AL, Zuardi AW, et al. Cannabidiol can improve complex sleep-related behaviours associated with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in Parkinson’s disease patients: a case series. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2014;39:564-566. Abstract
  123. Chagas MH, Zuardi AW, Tumas V, et al. Effects of cannabidiol in the treatment of patients with Parkinson’s disease: an exploratory double-blind trial. J Psychopharmacol. 2014;28:1088-1098. Abstract
  124. Consroe P, Sandyk R, Snider SR. Open label evaluation of cannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders. Int J Neurosci. 1986;30:277-282. Abstract
  125. Wade DT, Robson P, House H, Makela P, Aram J. A preliminary controlled study to determine whether whole-plant cannabis extracts can improve intractable neurogenic symptoms. Clin Rehabil. 2003;17:21-29. Abstract
  126. A Study: Pure CBD as Single-Agent for Solid Tumor. NCT02255292. Accessed December 21, 2014.
  127. Watkins N. Insys’ pharmaceutical CBD receives orphan drug designation for treatment of glioma. Cannabis Pharma Journal. October 7, 2014. Accessed January 4, 2015.
  128. Zuardi AW, Cosme RA, Graeff FG, Guimarães FS. Effects of ipsapirone and cannabidiol on human experimental anxiety. J Psychopharmacol. 1993;7(1 Suppl):82-88.
  129. Crippa JA, Zuardi AW, Garrido GE, et al. Effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on regional cerebral blood flow. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2004;29:417-426. Abstract
  130. Fusar-Poli P, Crippa JA, Bhattacharyya S, et al. Distinct effects of {delta}9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on neural activation during emotional processing. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2009;66:95-105. Abstract
  131. Crippa JA, Derenusson GN, Ferrari TB, et al. Neural basis of anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in generalized social anxiety disorder: a preliminary report. J Psychopharmacol. 2011;25:121-130. Abstract
  132. Bergamaschi MM, Queiroz RH, Chagas MH, et al. Cannabidiol reduces the anxiety induced by simulated public speaking in treatment-naïve social phobia patients. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011;36:1219-1226. Abstract
  133. Das RK, Kamboj SK, Ramadas M, et al. Cannabidiol enhances consolidation of explicit fear extinction in humans. Psychopharmacol. (Berl). 2013;226:781-792.
  134. Carlini EA, Cunha JM. Hypnotic and antiepileptic effects of cannabidiol. J Clin Pharmacol. 1981;21(8-9 Suppl):417S-427S.
  135. Nicholson AN, Turner C, Stone BM, Robson PJ. Effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on nocturnal sleep and early-morning behavior in young adults. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2004;24:305-313. Abstract
  136. Izzo AA, Borrelli F, Capasso R, Di Marzo V, Mechoulam R. Non-psychotropic plant cannabinoids: new therapeutic opportunities from an ancient herb. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2009;30:515-527. Abstract
  137. Hallak JE, Dursun SM, Bosi DC, et al. The interplay of cannabinoid and NMDA glutamate receptor systems in humans: preliminary evidence of interactive effects of cannabidiol and ketamine in healthy human subjects. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2011;35:198-202. Abstract
  138. Zuardi AW, Morais SL, Guimarães FS, Mechoulam R. Anti-psychotic effect of cannabidiol. J Clin Psychiatry. 1995;56:485-486. Abstract
  139. Leweke FM, Koethe D, Gerth CW, et al. Cannabidiol as an antipsychotic. A double-blind, controlled clinical trial on cannabidiol vs. amisulpride in acute schizophrenia. Eur Psychiatry. 2007;22:S14.02.
  140. Leweke FM, Piomelli D, Pahlisch F, et al. Cannabidiol enhances anandamide signaling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia. Transl Psychiatry. 2012;20;2:e94.
  141. Zuardi AW. Cannabidiol: from an inactive cannabinoid to a drug with wide spectrum of action. Rev Bras Psiquiatr. 2008;30:271-280. Abstract
  142. Schubart CD, Sommer IE, Fusar-Poli P, de Witte L, Kahn RS, Boks MP. Cannabidiol as a potential treatment for psychosis. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2014;24:51-64. Abstract
  143. McLoughlin BC, Pushpa-Rajah JA, Gillies D, et al. Cannabis and schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;10:CD004837.
  144. Morgan CJ, Das RK, Joye A, Curran HV, Kamboj SK. Cannabidiol reduces cigarette consumption in tobacco smokers: preliminary findings. Addict Behav. 2013;38:2433-2436. Abstract
  145. Acute and Short-Term Effects of Cannabidiol Administration on Cue-Induced Craving in Drug-Abstinent Heroin Dependent Subjects. NCT01605539. Accessed January 4, 2015.
  146. Kulkarni AS, Balkrishnan R, Anderson RT, Edin HM, Kirsch J, Stacy MA. Medication adherence and associated outcomes in Medicare health maintenance organization-enrolled older adults with Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord. 2008;23:359-365. Abstract
  147. Gueorguieva R, Rosenheck R, Lin H. Joint modelling of longitudinal outcome and interval-censored competing risk dropout in a schizophrenia clinical trial. J R Stat Soc Ser A Stat Soc. 2012;175:417-433.
  148. McCue DA, Lohr LK, Pick AM. Improving adherence to oral cancer therapy in clinical practice. Pharmacother. 2014;34:481-494.
  149. Duchi S, Ovadia H, Touitou E. Nasal administration of drugs as a new non-invasive strategy for efficient treatment of multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimmunol. 2013;258:32-40. Abstract
  150. Rock EM, Parker LA. Suppression of lithium chloride-induced conditioned gaping (a model of nausea-induced behaviour) in rats (using the taste reactivity test) with metoclopramide is enhanced by cannabidiolic acid. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2013;111:84-89. Abstract
  151. Consroe P, Wolkin A. Cannabidiol—antiepileptic drug comparisons and interactions in experimentally induced seizures in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1977;201:26-32. Abstract
  152. Neelakantan H, Tallarida RJ, Reichenbach ZW, Tuma RF, Ward SJ, Walker EA. Distinct interactions of cannabidiol and morphine in three nociceptive behavioral models in mice. Behav Pharmacol. 2014 Dec 5. [Epub ahead of print]
  153. Torres S, Lorente M, Rodríguez-Fornés F, et al. A combined preclinical therapy of cannabinoids and temozolomide against glioma. Mol Cancer Ther. 2011;10:90-103. Abstract
  154. Ward SJ, McAllister SD, Kawamura R, Murase R, Neelakantan H, Walker EA. Cannabidiol inhibits paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain through 5-HT(1A) receptors without diminishing nervous system function or chemotherapy efficacy. Br J Pharmacol. 2014;171:636-645. Abstract
  155. Ward SJ, Ramirez MD, Neelakantan H, Walker EA. Cannabidiol prevents the development of cold and mechanical allodynia in paclitaxel-treated female C57Bl6 mice. Anesth Analg. 2011;113:947-950. Abstract
  156. Richardson PG, Xie W, Mitsiades C, et al. Single-agent bortezomib in previously untreated multiple myeloma: efficacy, characterization of peripheral neuropathy, and molecular correlations with response and neuropathy. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27:3518-3525. Abstract
  157. Morelli MB, Offidani M, Alesiani F, et al. The effects of cannabidiol and its synergism with bortezomib in multiple myeloma cell lines. A role for transient receptor potential vanilloid type-2. Int J Cancer. 2014;134:2534-2546. Abstract
  158. Nabissi M, Morelli MB, Santoni M, Santoni G. Triggering of the TRPV2 channel by cannabidiol sensitizes glioblastoma cells to cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents. Carcinogenesis. 2013;34:48-57. Abstract
  159. De Petrocellis L, Ligresti A, Schiano Moriello A, et al. Non-THC cannabinoids inhibit prostate carcinoma growth in vitro and in vivo: pro-apoptotic effects and underlying mechanisms. Br J Pharmacol. 2013;168:79-102. Abstract
  160. Fouad AA, Albuali WH, Al-Mulhim AS, Jresat I. Cardioprotective effect of cannabidiol in rats exposed to doxorubicin toxicity. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2013;36:347-357. Abstract
  161. Gomes FV, Del Bel EA, Guimarães FS. Cannabidiol attenuates catalepsy induced by distinct pharmacological mechanisms via 5-HT1A receptor activation in mice. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2013;46:43-47. Abstract
  162. Gazarini L, Stern CA, Piornedo RR, Takahashi RN, Bertoglio LJ. PTSD-like memory generated through enhanced noradrenergic activity is mitigated by a dual step pharmacological intervention targeting its reconsolidation. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2014;18.
  163. Deiana S, Watanabe A, Yamasaki Y, et al. Plasma and brain pharmacokinetic profile of cannabidiol (CBD), cannabidivarine (CBDV), ?9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) and cannabigerol (CBG) in rats and mice following oral and intraperitoneal administration and CBD action on obsessive-compulsive behavior. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2012;219:859-873.
  164. Paudel KS, Hammell DC, Agu RU, Valiveti S, Stinchcomb A. Cannabidiol bioavailability after nasal and transdermal application: effect of permeation enhancers. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2010;36:1088-1097. Abstract
  165. Solowij N, Broyd SJ, van Hell HH, Hazekamp A. A protocol for the delivery of cannabidiol (CBD) and combined CBD and ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) by vaporisation. BMC Pharmacol Toxicol. 2014;15:58.
  166. Hawksworth G, McArdle K. Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics of Cannabinoids. London: Pharmaceutical Press; 2004.
  167. Karschner EL, Darwin WD, Goodwin RS, Wright S, Huestis MA. Plasma cannabinoid pharmacokinetics following controlled oral ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol and oromucosal cannabis extract administration. Clin Chem. 2011;57:66-75. Abstract
  168. Mather LE. Medicinal cannabis—hoax or hope? Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2001;26:484-487. Abstract
  169. Brauser D. Cannabis-related ED visits rise in states with legalized use. Medscape Medical News. December 16, 2014. /viewarticle/836663 Accessed January 12, 2015.
  170. Welty TE, Luebke A, Gidal BE. Cannabidiol: promise and pitfalls. Epilepsy Curr. 2014;14:250-252. Abstract
  171. Kleber HD, DuPont RL. Physicians and medical marijuana. Am J Psychiatry. 2012;169:564-568. Abstract
  172. Sabo A, Horvat O, Stilinovic N, Berenji J, Vukmirovic S. Industrial hemp decreases intestinal motility stronger than Indian hemp in mice. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2013;17:486-490. Abstract
  173. H.R.2642. Agricultural Act of 2014. 113th United States Congress. Accessed January 15, 2015.
  174. Johnson R. Hemp as an Agricultural Commodity. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service; 2014.
  175. National Conference of State Legislatures. Medical marijuana laws. November 13, 2014. Accessed January 15, 2015.
  176. Hemp Industries Association USA LLC v. Drug Enforcement Administration, nos. 03-71366, 03-71693. US 9th Circuit. February 6, 2004. Accessed January 28, 2015.
  177. Osher CN. As dispensaries pop up, Denver may be pot capital, U.S.A. Denver Post. January 3, 2010. Accessed January 15, 2015.
  178. National Institute on Drug Abuse. DrugFacts: is marijuana medicine? Revised December 2014. Accessed January 17, 2015.
  179. Grella CE, Rodriguez L, Kim T. Patterns of medical marijuana use among individuals sampled from medical marijuana dispensaries in Los Angeles. J Psychoactive Drugs. 2014;46:263-272. Abstract
  180. Salomonsen-Sautel S, Sakai JT, Thurstone C, Corley R, Hopfer C. Medical marijuana use among adolescents in substance abuse treatment. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2012;51:694-702. Abstract
  181. Pacula RL, Powell D, Heaton P, Sevigny EL. Assessing the effects of medical marijuana laws on marijuana use: the devil is in the details. J Policy Anal Manage. 2015;34:7-31. Abstract
  182. Wang GS, Roosevelt G, Heard K. Pediatric marijuana exposures in a medical marijuana state. JAMA Pediatr. 2013;167:630-633.
  183. Renehan A. Clearing the haze surrounding state medical marijuana laws: a preemption analysis and proposed solutions. Houston Journal of Health Law & Policy. 2014;14:299-327.
  184. Sevigny EL, Pacula RL, Heaton P. The effects of medical marijuana laws on potency. Int J Drug Pol. 2014;25:308-319.
  185. Pacula RL, Lundberg R. Why changes in price matter when thinking about marijuana policy: a review of the literature on the elasticity of demand. Public Health Rev. 2014;35:1-18.
  186. Hurd YL, Michaelides M, Miller ML, Jutras-Aswad D. Trajectory of adolescent cannabis use on addiction vulnerability. Neuropharmacology. 2014;76 Pt B:416-424. Abstract
  187. Lain CB. Passive-aggressive executive power. MD Law Rev. 2013;73:227-245.
  188. Dorbian I. Entrepreneurs seek profits from pot. Wall Street Journal. February 3, 2014. Accessed January 17, 2014.
  189. Cole JM. Guidance regarding marijuana enforcement. US Department of Justice, Office of the Deputy Attorney General. August 29, 2013. Accessed January 17, 2015.
  190. US Senate. Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015. Accessed January 18, 2015.

Other thoughts?

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.