Tag Archives: ion-channels

Neuroscience 2016: Thermosensors

Neuroscience 2016: Part 1 | Thermosensors | Pain Research Forum – David Julius delivers sweeping history of thermosensors in featured lecture at Society for Neuroscience annual meeting – by Stephani Sutherland on 31 Jan 2017

Summary of a featured lecture delivered by David Julius, University of California, San Francisco. The lecture discussed the use of natural compounds to understand the structure and function of the TRPV1 ion channel.

Spicy plants and venomous beasts are the sources of natural products that have been used for decades to study neurophysiology. Rather than look for pain-relieving substances, Julius said he wanted to “flip the coin and find compounds that would activate pain.”

From a long list of compounds, a few emerged that could selectively activate pain-sensing nerve fibers, including capsaicin, menthol—which is cooling but can be painful—and isothiocyanates, volatile substances found in onions and other plants.   Continue reading


Theories About Cause of EDS Pain

Below are 2 PubMed articles insinuating that EDS pain is due to central sensitization or general extreme pain sensitivity.

I still insist that EDS pain is mechanical (due to lax tissues) and/or biochemical (because cell walls are also made from our defective connective tissue). However, we cannot know if the amount of pain we feel is in “normal” proportion to the nociceptive stimuli we experience.

The question is: do we have more pain than average or are we just more sensitive to average pain?

In the “good old days”, before I had to take pain medication around the clock, I seemed extremely pain sensitive. Even a wrinkle in the bedsheet would become painful if laid on it too long.   Continue reading

Management of Chronic Visceral Pain

Recommendations for the Management of Chronic Visceral Pain – Cindy Lampner –  July 05, 2016

The subjective experience of visceral pain and the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie it are substantially different from those of somatic pain, yet pain management strategies do not traditionally differ in their approaches.

As a result, the treatment of visceral pain frequently results in suboptimal outcomes and adverse effects on the GI tract.

Frequently diffuse, poorly localized and associated with autonomic and emotional reactions and alterations in visceral function, visceral pain is common across a range of clinical populations.  Continue reading

Damage from Uncontrolled Chronic Pain

Here is a list of posts (21, through Dec 2016) covering the damage caused by uncontrolled chronic pain, both physical and mental.

While the news is filled with stories of damages from opioid abuse, the damages of pain itself are never mentioned anywhere in the media.

This leaves the public completely ignorant of all the biological damages pain patients suffer if they are not provided effective pain relief quickly.

These are arguments for allowing pain patients access to opioids, showing how important it is to eradicate pain by any means possible as soon as possible.   Continue reading

Scientists discover a new class of pain relievers

Scientists discover and test new class of pain relievers – 6/2/2016

A research team at Duke University has discovered a potential new class of small-molecule drugs that simultaneously block two sought-after targets in the treatment of pain.

These proof-of-concept experiments, published June 1 in Scientific Reports, could lead to the development of a new drug to treat conditions including

  • skin irritation and itching,
  • headaches,
  • jaw pain, and
  • abdominal pain stemming from the pancreas and colon.

I find it odd that this drug treats pain only of specific types and in specific locations.  Continue reading

Adenosine both causes and relieves pain

The Two Faces of Adenosine | Pain Research Forum – by Matthew Soleiman on 26 Jul 2016

Over several decades, adenosine—a purine nucleoside involved in many physiological and pathophysiological processes—has gained a reputation as a molecule that relieves pain.

But there have also been scattered reports that adenosine can produce pain.

Now, new research led by Yang Xia, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, US, helps make sense of adenosine’s dual nature.

mice with a deficiency in adenosine deaminase (ADA), an enzyme needed for the breakdown of adenosine, had sustained levels of circulating adenosine, which promoted mechanical and thermal pain sensitivity  Continue reading

The Dichotomy of Substance P

The Dichotomy of Substance P in Mediating Analgesia in the PNS and Nociception in the CNS – Aug 2016  By Florence Chaverneff, Ph.D.

This is a very technical article about a very odd, and thus interesting, phenomenon.

The excitatory neuromodulator Substance P (SP) in the tachykinin family of neuropeptides is produced in the CNS and PNS.

Co-release of SP and glutamate, as well as upregulation of SP’s neurokinin G Protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been implicated in acute and chronic inflammation as well as nociception.   Continue reading

Pain sensitivity changes due to lifestyle, environment

Pain sensitivity may be influenced by lifestyle, environment, twin study suggests — ScienceDaily — February 4, 2014

Researchers at King’s College London have discovered that sensitivity to pain could be altered by a person’s lifestyle and environment throughout their lifetime.

The study is the first to find that pain sensitivity, previously thought to be relatively inflexible, can change as a result of genes being switched on or off by lifestyle and environmental factors — a process called epigenetics, which chemically alters the expression of genes.

Published today in Nature Communications, the study has important implications for understanding pain sensitivity and could lead to new treatments aimed at ‘switching off’ certain genes epigenetically.   Continue reading

Anandamide Alleviates LPS-Induced Neuroinflammation

Anandamide, Acting via CB2 Receptors, Alleviates LPS-Induced Neuroinflammation in Rat Primary Microglial Cultures | Neural Plast. 2015; | NCBI | full-text PMC article

From results:

In summary, we showed that the endocannabinoid system plays a crucial role in the management of neuroinflammation


Microglial activation is a polarized process divided into potentially neuroprotective phenotype M2 and neurotoxic phenotype M1, predominant during chronic neuroinflammation.

Endocannabinoid system provides an attractive target to control the balance between microglial phenotypes.  Continue reading

Piriformis Syndrome, Sciatica or Both?

Piriformis Syndrome, Sciatica or Both?

Sciatica is a type of chronic pain which is characterized by pain, weakness, numbness, or tingling in the leg.

The cause of sciatica is often due to an injury or compression of the sciatic nerve.

It serves as a symptom of another medical problem and is not a condition on its own so knowing the cause of sciatica is paramount for the right treatment

Pain arising from an inflamed sciatic nerve can occur from low back disease, pelvic injury, lesions pressing on the nerve, piriformis syndrome, or the presence of myofascial trigger points.   Continue reading